Ernst Haeckel, Adolf Giltsch
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Cristatella. / Bryozoa. Moostiere.

Lithograph by Ernst Haeckel and Adolf Giltsch

Plate 23 from Kunstformen der Natur.
Bryozoa: Also known as Polyzoa; moss animals

Where was this made?:

Bryozoa form a varied class within the phylum of genuine Vermalia (Wurmtiere); they live to a large extent in the sea where their colonies cover stones and other objects in the form of crusts, leaves, bushes, etc. The order of Lophopoda (Armwirbler), however, is found in freshwater only; here they cover water plants and roots of trees with the help of their creeping colonies, and are found frequently at the underside of duckweed leaves, water lilies, etc. During their youth each Bryozoum is a simple worm-like individual (fig. 6), closely related to Rotatoria (Rädertierchen); due to their delicate corona of tentacles that surrounds the mouth, they appear similar to hydroid polyps (plates 6 and 25) and are therefore often called ‘moss polyps’; however, they differ considerably from these with a more developed internal organization (possession of body cavity, anus, ‘brain bud’, etc.) – Reproduction of Bryozoa partly takes place sexually (through fertilized eggs), partly asexually through budding. Most Bryozoa thus form huge colonies or Corma through repeated budding, composed of numerous small individuals, characterized by manifold forms of the hard, excreted covers. – Freshwater Lophopoda are distinguished by a horseshoe-shaped support of the ‘tentacle corona’ as well as the production of inner ‘standing germs’ (Statoblasta, fig. 1 and 2). These ‘winter buds’ hibernate and sprout a germ in spring that develops immediately into a young individual (fig. 3). The round ‘standing germs’ are covered with a solid, lenticular case; the brim of this brown disc is frequently surrounded by a delicate ‘swimming ring’, the numerous small chambers of which are filled with air (fig. 1 and 2). Statoblasts are thus retained swimming and propelling at the surface of the water.

Translation of the original German introduction by Ernst Haeckel:

Phylum of Vermalia; - class of Prosopygia (Buschwürmer; - subclass of Bryozoa (Moostiere), - order of Lophopoda (Armwirbler).

Translation by VR Translators Bangalore

This is one of the 100 pop science biology illustrations that were published from 1899 – 1904 in Leipzig by Ernst Haeckel through Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts.

We've scanned the original lithography at 1200dpi on the Epson A3 scanner of A3 scanner huren. You can download a 400dpi JPEG here.