Amsterdam and the Dutch as a whole. Torn between two polar characters: a cleanliness-obsessed nation or a country noted as least clean amongst those in Europe. To many foreigners, Amsterdam -even in its densest areas- is relatively clean despite the city’s nightlife reputation. On the other hand, a 2018 survey revealed that the Dutch came last in the list of hygienic countries (Jacobs, 2018). It was also noted that only 50% of the Netherlands wash their hands visiting the washroom. So the reputation remains debatable as to whether this impression of Dutch cleanliness prevails today.
But rewind back to the Dutch Golden Age and anecdotes about a cleaning frenzy is undeniable. Over 250 accounts written by foreign travelers noted how the interiors and exteriors were meticulously cleaned (Bavel, 2009). By the 18th century, Dutch cleanliness had become a frequent stereotype in literature. Housewives and maidservants of the Dutch Republic upheld a standard of cleanliness that surpasses any other during the early modern age. What’s more is that this level of cleanliness was noted across social class, and did not only concern the elites (as is the case for some nations at the time). Taking care of personal and public hygiene was a cultural phenomenon and it was indeed significant enough for foreigners to make a mention.
This obsession with cleaning might have come from various cultural and geographical influence: from the weather, to religion, to laws and economical production. By 1498, the Amsterdam magistrate was already requiring for maidservants to keep domestic doorsteps spic and span. Cattle and carts were not allowed on the streets; and some even cut of their cows’ tails to prevent them from fouling themselves. In recent years, scholars have even suggested that this cleaning habit was founded in the high standard of hygiene necessitated by dairy production (Bavel, 2009).
Most fascinating to us is what this pre-modern habit reflects in terms of urban scents. Other major cities at the time, like London, appear to be known for their unpleasant smell due to low standards of hygiene and an increasing population. Yet, the Amsterdam scent lacked an odour synonymous to our idea of a pre-modern stench.