Translation of the original German introduction by Ernst Haeckel:
Phylum of Cnidaria (Nesseltiere); - class of Hydrozoa (Hydratiere); - subclass of Hydroidea (Hydropolypen); - order of Campanariae (Glockenpolypen).
Campanariae are closely related to both, Tubulariae (Röhrenpolypen, plate 6) as well as Sertulariae (Reihenpolypen, plate 25); they are distinguished from both by the solid, horn-like protective capsules sitting on slender, curled shafts, used by the tender polyp bodies to retreat. The individuals that compose the colonies of Campanariae have always taken two or three different shapes due to the division of tasks. ‘Feeding polyps’ or Hydranthae possess a mouth opening at the bottom that is surrounded by a corona of flexible tentacles (‘sensing filaments’ and ‘capturing arms’); the mouth is usually prolonged in the form of a trunk (fig. 5); their protective capsule (Hydrotheca) forms a bell-shaped cup with a delicately dentate opening rim (fig. 3). The protective capsule of the sexual polyps or Conophorae is usually bigger, urn-shaped, with shorter shaft or sitting (Gonagiae). The mouthless ‘sexual animals’ that also have no corona of tentacles either remain fixed to the colony and form ‘sexual products’ inside the gastroderm, out of which larva of polyps (Planulae) develop (fig. 3 and 4), or they transform into highly developed Medusae that, swimming freely, achieve sexual maturity relatively late (fig. 1 and 2); polyps develop from the fertilized eggs of these Medusae. Hydromedusae, in alteration of generations with Campanariae, belong to the order of Leptomedusae (plate 36).
Translation by VR Translators Bangalore
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