Cemre Kara

Japanese Knotweed: Rethinking Invasive Species

Around the mid-1800s, botanical interests in Europe were high. Searching for beautiful unique plants around the world, for study purposes, or using them as ornamentals was common practice. So much that many species were being shipped from their natural habitats to Kew Gardens, nurseries, and gardens in Europe and North America.

Vergroot

26-03-2020 Japanese Knotweed - 6 knoppen van de Japanse Duizenknopp - Deze knoppen van de jonge onkruid zijn geweldig om mee te koken. Licht samentrekkend, fris zuur net als Sorrell. Het beste kan je de plant plukken tegen het einde van maart-begin van april in Nederland. De plant komt van origine uit Azië en staat daar bekend als de "exotic invader". Ook hier hebben wij er last van, de plant kan zich zo snel verspreiden dat het tot overlast aan toe gaat.   De wetenschappelijke benaming voor de Japanse Duizenknopp is: Reynoutria japonica or Fallopia… Willem Velthoven

Originally described as Reynoutria Japonica by Houttuyn in 1777 from Japan introduced to the West in mid 19th century by the famous Bavarian physician, botanist Philippe von Siebold who first discovered the species growing in near Nagasaki, on the side of the volcanoes.

In the 1840s it was shipped from Japan, along with other types of plants to Philippe von Siebold’s nursery, in Leiden, Holland.

The beauty of this particular species attracted so many people’s attention that the plant was even named as the ‘the most interesting new ornamental plant of the year’ in 1847, by the Society of Agriculture and Horticulture in Utrecht. In 1850, specimens of the plant were already sent to the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew (UK).

It’s “pretty heart-shaped leaves, white flower and its growth” was remarkable to the people of the time. It even conquered the favor of Victorian Gardeners. So much that soon enough many gardens in the UK enthusiastically shared the plant with each other.

However, the glory days of our plant went away quickly after it was proved to be invasive and destructive. The growth was so fast that it was almost impossible to stop.

And just like that, this species was no longer desired.

By 1901, Makino, a Japanese botanist, realized Houttuyn ’s Reynoutria Japonica, and what we call Japanese Knotweed are the same specıes, scientifically known as Fallopia Japonica.

It is said that this pretty looking plant is now the most unwanted and invasive plant in Europe.

Trapped in a foreign land, a great amount of money has been spent trying to control the outbreak of the species. As a matter of fact, in 2012 during the building of the Olympic Park in East London, the government spent £70 million alone to clear the Japanese Knotweed from the site. 

How does Japanese Knotweed behave in its natural habitat?

In its natural habitat (East Asia; Korea, and China and mainly in Japan) Japanese knotweed grows on the side of the volcanoes, in extreme climates. There, the native insects and fungi limit the plant from spreading more.

For centuries, it was used in agriculture, bee-keeping activities, medicine, culinary, and as a ceremonial herb. This is mostly because of its positive effects on health. Recent studies suggest that the Japanese Knotweed has benefits for cognitive disorders, like Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. This is because of the resveratrol content of the herb. (resveratrol; plant compound that acts as an antioxidant), this means that resveratrol can keep brain pathways energized and in use. Nevertheless, I should note it is warned that taking an excessive amount of Japanese Knotweed can induce negative reactions, and the dosage of this herb should be under guidelines. Yet the perks of the Japanese Knotweed are greater than it’s downsides. 

It's edible! 

As we all can assume it would not be suggested to forage them by yourself because of its fast growth. However, with careful foraging techniques, this problem can be solved. We have so many of these plants, we are making them illegal and trying to keep them away from our soil, our gardens with chemical preventions along with the soil. Wouldn’t it be great to actually use them and consume them, or have them in our food markets?

Yes, Japanese Knotweed is in the highest list of invading species in Europe. However with climate change, that humans created, it is getting hard to recognize what is a native and what is an invader. An article that I recently read about the topic “Invasive Plants And Invasion Biology As Destructive Concepts” gave me another perspective to look at the situation. 

When plants and animals are moving towards different locations in search of conditions they can tolerate, we can’t deny that the Earth is changing and it is not stable.

We should also not forget that humans fasten the phase of change, bringing these plants from their natural habitats. We’ve done this while systematically destroying ecosystems and wild areas. Seeing nature as something stable. I came across the following phrase that was very fitting

"Evolution is about adaptation and change; our fossil records show that throughout the many millennia of earth’s existence, the only constant is change and the ability to adapt.

This is a natural process and one that has driven all life. We are already seeing the effects of climate change with the migration of species to areas that are now getting warmer. Nature will adapt and evolve, it’s just what she does. "

So maybe it is time to give this species another chance before we call them invaders and enjoy the perks of the plant that we have in abundance in our cities.

References

“History of Japanese Knotweed in Europe.” University of Leicester, 7 Oct. 2009, www2.le.ac.uk/departments/genetics/people/bailey/res/hist.

Haan, Gemeente Amsterdam Klaas-Bindert de. “Zoom in for the Contours Ofthe Viewed Growing Places.” Knotweed, maps.amsterdam.nl/duizendknoop/?LANG=en.

“Invasive Plants and Invasion Biology as Destructive Concepts: A Druid's Perspective.” The Druid's Garden, 9 Oct. 2014, druidgarden.wordpress.com/2014/10/09/invasive-plants-and-invasion-biology-as-destructive-concepts-a-druids-perspective/.

Jennings, Kerri-Ann. “7 Health Benefits of Resveratrol Supplements.” Healthline, Healthline Media, 3 Mar. 2017, www.healthline.com/nutrition/resveratrol.

Rob. “Benefits of Japanese Knotweed.” Taylor Total Weed Control, 2 Sept. 2019, www.taylor-weed-control.co.uk/news/post/health-benefits-of-japanese-knotweed.

“What Does Japanese Knotweed Look Like? - Knotweed Specialists.” Japanese Knotweed Specialists, japaneseknotweedspecialists.com/what-is-japanese-knotweed/.