Ernst Haeckel, Adolf Giltsch
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Marchantia. / Hepaticae. – Lebermoose.

Lithograph by Ernst Haeckel and Adolf Giltsch

Plate 82 from Kunstformen der Natur.
Hepaticae: Division of non-vascular land plants. Simular to mosses and hornworts. 

The small and tender ‘presprouting plants’, joined together in the varied class of liverwort (Hepaticae), can be allocated to two different subclasses, ‘bed-mosses’ and ‘leave-mosses’. The older and lower class is the ‘bed-mosses’ (Thallobryia, fig. 1-7); a differentiation in stem and leave is not yet developed, their multi-cellular body forms a simple frame (Thallus) as in Algae (plates 15 and 65) and in Fungi (plates 63 and 73); they are directly related to green algae (Chlorophyceae), from which they originate (Ulvazea among the latter lead to Ricciazea within the liverworts). The younger and superior subclass are the ‘leave-mosses’ (Phyllobryia, fig. 8-17); the contrast of stem and leave is developed here as in the higher located ‘foliage-mosses’ (Muscinae, plate 72).
Developmental history of ‘liver-mosses’ is connected with alteration of generations (Metagenesis), just like the history of ‘foliage-mosses’. Out of a fertilized ovocyte (or stem cell, Cytula), produced by the first, sexual generation, a second, asexual generation develops in the form of a ‘gamete-capsule’ (Sporogonium, also known as “moss-fruit, moss-casket”). This brown, yellow or red gamete-capsule is usually ovoid, long-stemmed and dehiscing into four flaps in the course of maturing thus releasing the mass of small gametes or spores that are contained in it (fig. 8-10, 13, 15 and 16). In the process of germination of the plant out of each spore a sexual generation develops, ‘flower-moss’ (Bryogonium); in ‘bed-mosses’ (fig. 1-7) it grows to a simple, leaf-shaped Thallus, in ‘leave-mosses’ (fig. 8-17) into a foliate stem. Later ‘moss-blossoms’ develop out of these, consisting of smaller, male seminal vesicles and bigger, female ‘ovum-containers’. Inside the seminal vesicles (Antheridia or Spermaria) flexible flagellate cells (Spermatozoa with two swinging flagella) evolve, in the ‘ovum-containers’ (Archegonia or Ovaria) single, big ovocytes. The latter ones being fertilized by the former ones Sporogonium, “moss-fruit” comes into being. A good number of ‘bed-mosses’ generate tender inflorescences (Receptacula) with flowers getting enclosed in perianths (Perianthium) and thus joined in groups, so in Marchantiazea (fig. 1-7).

Translation of the original German introduction by Ernst Haeckel:

Division of Diaphyta or Archegoniata (Vorkeimpflanzen); - main class of Bryophyta (Moospflanzen); - class of Hepaticae (Lebermoose).

Translation by VR Translators Bangalore

This is one of the 100 pop science biology illustrations that were published from 1899 – 1904 in Leipzig by Ernst Haeckel through Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts.

We've scanned the original lithography at 1200dpi on the Epson A3 scanner of A3 scanner huren. You can download a 400dpi JPEG here.