Toby Kiers investigates how cooperation between species evolves and persists. Her research explores the concept of ‘punishment’ and how punishment is used in nature by plants, animals and microbes. Her most recent work focuses on trading in nature and how complex ‘biological markets’ can emerge among plants and microbes.
Professor Kiers received her doctoral degree from University of California, Davis in 2005. She has conducted research in Central America, Africa, Japan, Europe and North America, and uses this work to inform current conservation approaches and global agricultural policy. Professor Kiers is now a University Research Chair and Professor of Mutualistic Interactions at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
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